Turkey produces passenger cars and small commercial vehicles (including pick-ups, vans, minibuses), trucks, special equipment, large and medium-sized buses, as well as, in large volumes, their components and spare parts.
The automotive industry is the leading sector of the machine-building industry in Turkey, and currently employs 400 thousand people. The country is among the 15 largest automakers in the world and in the top five in Europe, where it is second only to Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, but surpasses the Czech Republic, Russia, and Italy. Car production increased over 15 years (from 2002 to 2016) from 374 thousand to 1.5 million per year. Also Turkey is the largest supplier of automotive components in Europe. The auto industry accounts for 16% of exports (up to 3/4 of products are exported).
The main sales markets for Turkish spare parts are Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain, Poland, Belgium, USA, Spain, Romania, Russia, Iran and Slovakia, and the largest commodity groups are engine parts, gearboxes, rubber components, wheels and components for them, brake systems, clutches.
The largest centers for the production of auto components and spare parts are the Kocaeli region, where the specialized industrial zone TOSB was established in 1999, and Bursa, where the Robert Bosch plant is located.
Giants such as Robert Bosch, ZF Friedrichshafen, Mahle, Brose Fahrzeugteile and Continental AG (Germany), Valeo and Michelin (France), Denso, Fuji Heavy Industries and Toyota Boshoku, Autoliv (Sweden) operate in the auto parts and spare parts sector in Turkey. , Magneti Marelli and Pirelli (Italy), Bekaert, Gestamp Automocion (Spain), Auto Sueco (Portugal), Mayer’s Cars and Trucks (Israel), Kennametal and Hayes-Lemmerz (USA).
In 2009, the automotive components and parts subsector produced $ 13.3 billion worth of products and exported $ 7.3 billion (a third of all automotive exports). Turkey, as the largest supplier of automotive components in Europe, supplies AvtoVAZ and KAMAZ with them. Moreover, KAMAZ purchases key parts for its vehicles from Turkey, including cardan shafts.
Four leading companies – Ford Otosan, Oyak-Renault, Tofaş-Fiat and Toyota – are among the top 10 Turkish exporting companies. The Turkish automotive sector exported mainly to Europe to countries such as Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, Romania, as well as to the USA:
in 2007 – 818 thousand
in 2008 – 910 thousand
in 2009 – 629 thousand (76% of manufactured vehicles; total production for 16.9 billion dollars, 17.4% of the country’s total exports)
in 2010 – ??? thousand (about 73% (in the first half of the year) of the vehicles produced)
in 2013 – 828 thousand (out of 1.126 million produced)
The Construction Machinery and Construction Machinery Division in Turkey accounts for 12% of the export of spare parts and machinery.
Large shipyards are located in Tuzla, Golcuk, Izmit and Yalova (military and merchant ships, ship repair), there are also several medium and small producers of yachts and fishing vessels. As of 2010, Turkey was on the 8th place in the world for the production of new ships (in 2008 – on the fifth)
Türkiye Lokomotif ve Motor, a large locomotive and wagon manufacturer, and Türkiye Vagon wagon manufacturer are based in Eskisehir, EUROTEM locomotive manufacturer (a joint venture of Hyundai Rotem and Türkiye Lokomotif ve Motor), Sivas – Türkiye Demarımiry wagon manufacturer.
The plant of the largest Turkish manufacturer of power equipment Aksa Generators, which is part of Kazancı Holding, is located in Istanbul.
Among the largest companies and organizations in the defense sector are Türk Havacılık ve Uzay (TUSAŞ or Turkish Aerospace Industries – military aircraft and electronics, satellites, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles, a plant in Ankara), Turkish Aerospace Institute in Ankara, FNSS Savunma Sistemleri [ armored vehicles, army special equipment and small arms, a plant in Golbashi near Ankara), Nurol Makina (army and police armored vehicles), Otokar (tanks, armored vehicles and army special equipment), BMC (military vehicles), ASELSAN Elektronik [en] (communications, systems electronic protection and army optics, plant in Ankara), Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology in Gebze (electronics and optics, tracking and information security systems), Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu [en] (small arms, ammunition, missile and artillery systems , bombs and mines, armor, chemical protection, factories in Ankara, Kyrykkale and Chankyry), Roketsan (missiles, torpedoes, mortars, rocket fuel and simulation systems, plant in Ankara), Havelsan (military electronics and software, plant in Ankara), Meteksan Savunma [en] (electronic defense and missile defense systems, plant in Ankara), Girsan (small arms, plant in in Giresun), Trabzon Silah Sanayi or TİSAŞ (small arms, plant in Trabzon), Transvaro (army optics and electronics, mine detectors, plant in Istanbul).